The free soil and anti-slavery mantras of the prewar Republican party meant confining the black man to the South and reserving the western territories to European immigrants who did not want to compete with cheap labor. Lincoln and his fellow Republicans felt that the best use of the territories was “for homes of free white people”; Senator Lyman Trumbull of Illinois admitted the white supremacy basis of his party, stating that “We, the Republican party, are the white man’s party.”
Bernhard Thuersam, www.circa1865.org
Free Soil Iowa Without Black People
“It is surprising that so many forceful anti-Negro views could be aired on the frontier and yet escape the scrutiny of so many historians. At the constitutional conventions of almost every western State, the single most pressing question was the admission or status of the black population. “Shall the territories be Africanized?” was the way Senator James Harlan of Iowa phrased it.
Both proslavery and antislavery delegates vied with each other in verbalizing their resentment of black people, and their insistence that equality was entirely unacceptable to white residents of the States. Some even jeopardized their State’s admission to the Union by offering anti-Negro laws that were in clear violation of the wishes of Congress. And, as the slavery controversy grew and civil war appeared more imminent, colorphobia increased in the western States.
The 1850 Indiana Constitutional Convention illustrated the fury of this colorphobia. One delegate argued:
“. . . that we can never live together upon an equality is as certain as that no two antagonistic principles can exist together at the same time.”
Comments at the 1844 Iowa Constitutional Convention [were]:
“We could never consent to open the doors of our beautiful State and invite [the black] to settle our lands.”
“The ballot box would fall into his hands and a train of evils would follow that would be incalculable.”
“The Negro not being a party to the government, has no right to partake of its privileges.”
“There are strong reasons to induce the belief that the two races could not exist in the same government upon an equality without discord and violence.”
[The Iowa Journal of History, Vol. I]
(The Black West, William Loren Katz, Open Hand Publishing, 1987, pp. 49-50)